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东北农田黑土固碳微生物研究进展
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国家自然科学基金(U22A20444);农业农村部东北平原农业绿色低碳重点实验室开放基金(LCGANE03);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA28030203);黑龙江八一农垦大学“揭榜挂帅”科技攻关项目(JB20220001)


Research advances of carbon-fixing microorganisms in the black soil of northeast China
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    摘要:

    我国东北黑土地正在面临着不断退化的危机。碳循环是保障农田肥力和生产力的关键所在。作为土壤碳循环的驱动者,微生物在调节土壤碳平衡中发挥着重要作用。本文概述了黑土的分布、基本特征及退化的核心问题。首先综述了东北农田黑土固碳微生物的转化途径及群落组成。固碳微生物通过已发现的6种固碳途径进行碳固定,采用固碳功能基因cbbL,基于高通量测序技术发现东北农田黑土固碳微生物主要为变形菌门和蓝细菌门。其次,论述了耕作制度、施肥、秸秆还田和冻融对黑土微生物固碳的影响。最后,从提高作物产量、减少农业面源污染、降低温室气体排放等方面分析了固碳微生物对农业及生态环境的贡献。黑土固碳微生物对于黑土养分恢复和作物产量的提升具有不可或缺的作用,但相关研究比较薄弱,因此应深入挖掘黑土固碳微生物资源,利用学科交叉融合揭示固碳微生物的生态过程与功能结构变化,构建基于微生物碳循环的黑土管理措施,以加强黑土地的保护与利用。

    Abstract:

    The black soil in northeast China is facing the threat of continuous deterioration. The carbon cycle plays a critical role in the maintenance of soil fertility and productivity in farmland, where microorganisms regulate the carbon balance in soil. This review summarizes the distribution, characteristics, and degradation of black soil. Firstly, it describes the transformation pathways and community composition of carbon-fixing microorganisms in the black soil in farmland. These microorganisms employ six pathways to fix carbon. The high-throughput sequencing with the carbon fixation gene cbbL as the probe reveals that the carbon-fixing microorganisms in the black soil of northeast China mainly belong to Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. Secondly, the review discusses the effects of tillage systems, fertilization, straw return, and freezing-thawing on microbial carbon fixation in black soil. Finally, the contributions of carbon-fixing microorganisms to agriculture and the environment are expounded from increasing crop yields, reducing agricultural non-point source pollution, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. While these microorganisms are crucial for nutrient recovery and crop yield improvement, research remains to be carried out. The protection and utilization of black soil necessitates a deeper understanding of the microbial resources involved in carbon fixation. Interdisciplinary studies should be carried out to reveal the ecological processes and function and structure changes of these microorganisms, and a black soil management scheme focusing on microbial carbon cycling should be formulated for the protection and utilization of black soil.

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郝紫玉,邵亚旭,刘涛,张爽,王伟东,周宁一,晏磊. 东北农田黑土固碳微生物研究进展[J]. 微生物学通报, 2024, 51(6): 1873-1886

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历史
  • 收稿日期:2023-11-05
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2024-03-01
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-06-07
  • 出版日期: 2024-06-20