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利用环境胁迫提高破囊壶菌二十二碳六烯酸生产的研究进展
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国家自然科学基金(32170063);青岛市海洋工程与技术智库联合基金(201707071001)


The enhanced docosahexaenoic acid production by thraustochytrids through environmental stresses: a review
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    摘要:

    破囊壶菌由于具备生产多种高值天然活性物质的能力,如二十碳五烯酸(eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA)、二十二碳六烯酸(docosahexaenoic acid, DHA)、角鲨烯和类胡萝卜素等,目前已被视为商业脂质生产的优质来源。本文首先对破囊壶菌的生态作用和生物技术价值进行介绍,并概述了脂肪酸的两条生物合成途径;其次重点阐述了NaCl、温度、溶氧和pH这4种环境胁迫因子对破囊壶菌生长、脂质积累、脂肪酸组成和DHA生产的影响;随后总结了当前利用环境胁迫因子的渗透调节策略、分段发酵策略和缓解氧化应激策略提升破囊壶菌DHA生物合成能力的研究现状;最后指出了破囊壶菌在环境胁迫的分子调控机制、分段式发酵策略、菌株进化及代谢工程等方面存在的问题,并对如何改进这些问题以及未来可能的发展方向进行了展望。该综述旨在为破囊壶菌实现高效工业化生产DHA提供有效的参考。

    Abstract:

    Thraustochytrids, capable of producing multiple high-value natural active substances, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), squalene, and carotenoids, have been recognized as an excellent source for commercial lipid production. Firstly, this paper briefed the ecological roles and biotechnological values of thraustochytrids and summarized two biosynthetic pathways of fatty acids. Secondly, we introduced the effects of NaCl, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH on the growth, lipid accumulation, fatty acid composition, and DHA production of thraustochytrids. Thirdly, we reviewed the research progress in the strategies for enhancing the DHA biosynthesis ability of thraustochytrids by osmotic regulation, staged fermentation, and alleviating oxidative stress based on environmental stress factors. Finally, we pointed out the existing problems in the current research on the molecular regulation mechanism, staged fermentation strategies, strain improvement, and metabolic engineering of thraustochytrids under environmental stresses, provided solutions for these problems, and prospected the possible development direction in the future. Overall, this review aimed to provide a practical reference for efficient industrial production of DHA by thraustochytrids.

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王阳阳,李佳倩,朱星宇,刘璐,汪光义. 利用环境胁迫提高破囊壶菌二十二碳六烯酸生产的研究进展[J]. 微生物学通报, 2023, 50(11): 5150-5171

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历史
  • 收稿日期:2023-04-05
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2023-06-14
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-11-06
  • 出版日期: 2023-11-20