Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is one of the most important organic sulfur compounds in the world. It participates in the global sulfur cycle, signal transmission and potential regulation of global climate. The production of DMSP can reach up to 109 tons every year, with the main producers being marine phytoplankton and macroalgae. In recent years, it has been reported that some marine bacteria can also produce DMSP, which is a previously overlooked source of DMSP. Up to date, three DMSP synthesis pathways have been identified:methylation pathway, transamination pathway and decarboxylation pathway. Five key enzymes involved in DMSP synthesis were identified. On the basis of the research results in recent years, this study reviewed the key enzymes involved in DMSP synthesis, and provided outlook for future research.