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乳酸菌胆盐水解酶和共轭脂肪酸产生及对宿主脂代谢影响的研究进展
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陕西省科技厅重点研究项目(2018SF-290);陕西省科技厅自然科学基础研究项目(2019JQ-563);湖北省卫健委青年项目(WJ2021Q050);陕西中医药大学创新团队项目(2019-py01)


Production of bile salt hydrolase and conjugated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria and their effects on host lipid metabolism:a review
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    摘要:

    乳酸菌是一类影响宿主脂代谢的人体肠道益生菌。乳酸菌对脂代谢的影响作用与其产生胆盐水解酶(bile salt hydrolase,EC3.5.1.24,BSH)及共轭转化多不饱和脂肪酸(polyunsaturated fatty acids,PUFAs)关系密切。菌株差异、菌群分布和饮食差异是影响BSH及共轭脂肪酸产生的重要因素。本文重点阐述了两类物质对宿主脂代谢的影响机制,以期为后续研究提供借鉴。BSH能够降解肝脏分泌的胆汁酸(bile acids,BAs),降低脂类物质的吸收。BAs的降解产物胆汁酸脱氧胆酸(deoxycholic acid,DCA)和石胆酸(lithocholic acid,LCA)能够通过机体信号通路法尼类X受体(farnesoid X receptor,FXR)、小异二聚体伴侣(small heterodimer partner,SHP)及肝脏X受体(liver X receptor,LXR)等信号通路进行调控,促进胆固醇转运及向BAs转化。此外,BSH还能够通过下调固醇调节元件结合蛋白1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c,SREBP-1c)、上调5ʹ-腺苷单磷酸激活蛋白激酶α(5ʹ-AMP activated protein kinase,AMPKα)和过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α,PPARα)抑制脂质合成,促进脂质的分解。PUFAs可被乳酸菌转化产生共轭脂肪酸,如共轭亚油酸(conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)和共轭亚麻酸(conjugated linolenic acid,CLNA),CLA/CLNA能够促进机体产生瘦素(leptin,LP),抑制食欲、促进能量消耗;CLA/CLNA还可以通过激活PPARα进行调控,促进人体脂质的氧化分解。乳酸菌通过以上多种途径共同作用调节宿主的脂代谢,对深入理解乳酸菌调控脂代谢机制及临床应用有着重要意义。

    Abstract:

    Lactic acid bacteria are a representative probiotic in human intestine that affect host lipid metabolism, which is closely related with the production of bile salt hydrolase (EC3.5.1.24, BSH) and the conjugate conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The production of BSH and conjugated fatty acids is influenced by strain differences, flora distribution, and dietary differences. This paper focuses on the mechanism of BSH and conjugated fatty acids in regulating the host lipid metabolism, in order to provide reference for further research. BSH can degrade bile acids (BAs) secreted by liver and reduce the absorption of lipids. The degradation products of BAs, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, can promote cholesterol transport and conversion to BAs through signaling pathways such as farnesoid X receptor, small heterodimer partner and liver X receptor. Additionally, BSH can also inhibit lipid synthesis and promote lipid decomposition by down-regulating sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, up-regulating 5ʹ-AMP activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). PUFAs can be converted into conjugated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA). CLA/CLNA boosts the production of leptin in the body, suppresses appetite and promotes energy consumption. Moreover, CLA/CLNA can promote the oxidative decomposition of human lipids by activating PPARα. Lactic acid bacteria modulate the host lipid metabolism through the above-mentioned multiple pathways, which is of great significance for the in-depth understanding of its regulatory mechanism and clinical application.

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段亮亮,张蒙,冯洁,张维敏,商晋,杨芳.乳酸菌胆盐水解酶和共轭脂肪酸产生及对宿主脂代谢影响的研究进展[J].微生物学通报,2022,49(9):3890-3905

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  • 收稿日期:2022-01-15
  • 最后修改日期:2022-03-09
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-08-30
  • 出版日期: 2022-09-20