粤港关键领域重点突破项目(No. 2007A020902003); 广东省科技计划项目(No. 2006A10601002)
细菌素是由细菌产生的抗菌蛋白, 可以杀死与产生菌相近的细菌。很多乳酸菌产生不同多样性的细菌素, 虽然这些细菌素都是由发酵或非发酵食品中发现的乳酸菌产生的, 但是迄今只有乳酸链球菌素(Nisin)作为食品防腐剂被广泛应用。和抗生素不同的是, 细菌素由核糖体合成, 需经翻译后修饰活化并且通过特定转运系统输到胞外才能发挥其功能, 它一般通过作用于靶细胞膜来抑制靶细胞的生长, 同时本身合成细菌素的细胞对其产物具有免疫性。细菌素能安全有效地抑制病原体生长, 在食品行业中具有广阔的应用前景。
Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that can kill or inhibit closely related bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Compared with antibiotics, bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized. Their transcript must be modified before becoming active and are translocated to the outside of the cell by a transporter system. Bacteriocins inhibit target cells by acting on the membrane, while the cell synthesizing the bacteriocin has immunity to its product. Therefore, bacteriocins should be safely and effectively used to control the growth of target pathogens, make it have wide applications in many food systems.