污水处理厂是抗生素抗性基因（antibiotic resistance genes，ARGs）和抗生素抗性细菌（antibiotic resistant bacteria，ARB）重要的源和汇，生物气溶胶是ARGs和ARB自污水处理厂向周边环境释放的关键载体。目前缺乏对污水处理厂生物气溶胶抗生素抗性污染特征、来源及潜在风险的系统性总结。本文从采样方法、检测方法、逸散特征、来源、潜在危害和风险评估等方面对污水处理厂抗生素抗性污染研究现状进行综述。惯性采样法和过滤法是常用的污水处理厂抗生素抗性生物气溶胶主要采集方法，而宏基因组测序、组装和分箱为其ARGs组成、可移动性和宿主提供了有效的检测方法，抗多药类、抗杆菌肽类、抗氨基糖苷类、抗四环素类、抗β-内酰胺类、抗磺胺类、抗大环内酯类和抗糖肽类等抗性基因在污水处理厂PM10、PM2.5和PM1.0颗粒物中广泛检出。格栅间、生化反应池和污泥处理单元是污水处理厂PM10、PM2.5和PM1.0负载ARGs和ARB的主要释放单元。污水处理厂不同粒径生物气溶胶中致病性ARB的存在增加了抗生素治疗的难度，而污水和污泥对ARGs和ARB的释放起到了重要的源的贡献。本文在研究内容、研究技术和控制策略等方面也提出了相关展望，以期为污水厂生物气溶胶抗生素抗性污染的监测和防护提供参考和借鉴。
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the major sources and sinks of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB), and bioaerosols are the key carriers for the emissions of ARGs and ARB from WWTPs to the surrounding environment. The systemic review about the pollution characteristics, sources, and potential risks of the antibiotic resistance of bioaerosols from WWTPs remains to be carried out. We reviewed the research status of antibiotic resistance pollution in bioaerosols from WWTPs from the perspectives of sampling and detection methods, escape characteristics, sources, and potential hazard and risk assessment. Inertial sampling and filtration were the commonly used methods for collecting antibiotic resistant bioaerosols from WWTPs. Metagenomic sequencing, assembly, and binning can probe into the composition, mobility, and hosts of ARGs. The ARGs conferring resistance to multidrug, bacitracin, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, beta-lactam, sulfonamide, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, and glycopeptide were widely detected in PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 from WWTPs. The main emission units of ARGs and ARB loaded by PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 from WWTPs were screen rooms, biochemical reaction tanks, and sludge treatment units. The existence of pathogenic ARB in size-segregated bioaerosols from WWTPs increased the difficulty of antibiotic treatment, and sewage and sludge contributed to the release of ARGs and ARB. Furthermore, relevant prospects were proposed in terms of research content, research technology, and control strategies, so as to provide references for monitoring and protecting against bioaerosol antibiotic resistance pollution in WWTPs.
姜波,王旭一,黄青,隋心,杨唐,惠晓亮,张展鹏,高晓东. 污水处理厂生物气溶胶抗生素抗性污染特征、来源及潜在风险[J]. 微生物学通报, 2024, 51(1): 36-49复制